Esperanto was developed in the late s and early s by ophthalmologist Dr. After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating literature into the language as well as writing original prose and verse, the first book of Esperanto grammar was published in Warsaw in July The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first primarily in the Russian empire and Eastern Europe, then in Western Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan.
In the early years, speakers of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through correspondence and periodicals, but in the first world congress of Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Since then world congresses have been held in different countries every year, except during the two World Wars.Marketing write for us
Since the Second World War, they have been attended by an average of over and up to people. As a potential vehicle for international understanding, Esperanto attracted the suspicion of many totalitarian states.
In Germany, there was additional motivation to persecute Esperanto because Zamenhof was a Jew. In his work Mein Kampf, Hitler mentioned Esperanto as an example of a language that would be used by an International Jewish Conspiracy once they achieved world domination.
Esperantists were executed during the Holocaust, with Zamenhof's family in particular singled out for execution. In the early years of the Soviet Union, Esperanto was given a measure of government support, and an officially recognized Soviet Esperanto Association came into being.
However, inStalin reversed this policy. He denounced Esperanto as "the language of spies" and had Esperantists executed. The use of Esperanto remained illegal until Vietnamese Welsh. Xhosa Yiddish Yoruba Zhuang Zulu. Menu Esperanto Dictionary. Esperanto Dictionary.
The Serious History Behind Esperanto
Featured Video. About Privacy Contact.Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. Its creator was L. Zamenhofa Polish eye doctor. He created the language to make international communication easier. His goal was to design Esperanto in such a way that people can learn it much more easily than any other national language. Soon, people began calling it by the simpler name Esperantowhich means "one who hopes". That name comes from Doktoro Esperanto "Doctor who hopes"which is what Zamenhof called himself in his first book about Esperanto.
There are people who speak Esperanto in many countries and in all the major continents.
No one knows exactly how many people now speak Esperanto in the world. Most sources say that there are between several hundred thousand and two million Esperanto speakers.
There may perhaps be around 2, of these people. Zamenhof created Esperanto. Zamenhof saw conflicts between individual ethnic groups living there Russians, PolesGermans and Jews. He wanted it to be culturally neutral and easy-to-learn. He thought people should learn it along with national languages and use Esperanto for communication between people with different native languages.
First, Zamenhof thought about bringing Latin back into use.
Esperanto: History, Current Usage & Structure of this Auxiliary Language
Although he learned it in school, he realized it was too difficult for normal use. He also studied English and understood that languages did not need to conjugate verbs by person or number.
These words with the same ending gave him an idea. He decided that regular prefixes and suffixes could decrease the number of word rootswhich one would need for a communication. Zamenhof wanted the root words to be neutral, so he decided to use word roots from Romance and Germanic languages. Those languages were taught in many schools in many places around the world at that time. Zamenhof did his first project Lingwe uniwersala Universal Language in But his father, a language teacher, regarded his son's work as unrealistic.
So, he destroyed the original work. Between and Zamenhof studied medicine in Moscow and Warsaw.Esperanto is the most commonly used artificial language.Gbf schedule 2020
It was created by Polish physician Ludwig L. Zamenhoff and was first presented in Esperanto can be learned considerably quicker than a typical natural language. The grammar is extremely regular, yet not primitive. There is only one paradigm for nouns and one paradigm for verbs.
There is a simple relation between written and spoken text. The word-building is very rich and highly regular. The estimates of the numbers of Esperanto speakers range from 1 to 10 millions . Several tens of thousands of books have been published in Esperanto original and translatedand there are many periodicals.
There are several tendencies in the current Esperanto movement: A conservative group of speakers uses as a measure of the correctness of the language the books written by Zamenhof, including the so-called Fundamento . According to them, current speakers of Esperanto should follow the language in this corpus; even apparent Zamenhof's mistakes.
A progressive group is trying to change the language to make it more international, closer to English, easier to use etc. Some of the proposals are unsuccessful, some are partially used and some are even made official by Akademio, the headquarter of the Esperanto world. There is a third group of Esperanto users: AIL, group of scientists that uses the language for pragmatic reasons and wants to distinguish itself from the first two groups.
L: Fundamento de Esperanto. You may want to support further development of this grammar overview by donating via PayPal you do not need a PayPal account :. Title 1 Introduction 1.Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libroin The number of Esperanto speakers has grown gradually since then, although it has not had much support from governments and international organizations and has sometimes been outlawed or otherwise suppressed.
Aroundwhile in Moscow and approximately simultaneously with working on Esperanto, Zamenhof made an aborted attempt to standardize Yiddishbased on his native Bialystok Northeastern dialect, as a unifying language for the Jews of the Russian Empire.
However, he concluded there was no future for such a project, and abandoned it, dedicating himself to Esperanto as a unifying language for all humankind. Zamenhof would later say that he had dreamed of a world language since he was a child. At first he considered a revival of Latinbut after learning it in school he decided it was too complicated to be a common means of international communication. When he learned English, he realised that verb conjugations were unnecessary, and that grammatical systems could be much simpler than he had expected.
He then realised that a judicious use of affixes could greatly decrease the number of root words needed for communication. He chose to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanicthe languages that were most widely taught in schools around the world and would therefore be recognisable to the largest number of people.
Zamenhof taught an early version of the language to his high-school classmates. Then, for several years, he worked on translations and poetry to refine his creation. In he wrote, "I worked for six years perfecting and testing the language, even though it had seemed to me in that it was already completely ready.Part 06 - Esperanto is the language of the future.
Stymied, he spent his time in translating works such as the Bible and Shakespeare. This enforced delay led to continued improvement. This was essentially the language spoken today. Unua Libro was published in In its first years Esperanto was used mainly in publications by Zamenhof and early adopters like Antoni Grabowskiin extensive correspondence mostly now lostin the magazine La Esperantistopublished from to and only occasionally in personal encounters. Inunder pressure from Wilhelm Trompeter, the publisher of the magazine La Esperantistoand some other leading users, Zamenhof reluctantly put forward a radical reform to be voted on by readers.Kaalay i was aboowe
He proposed the reduction of the alphabet to 22 letters by eliminating the accented letters and most of their soundsthe change of the plural to -ithe use of a positional accusative instead of the ending -nthe removal of the distinction between adjectives and adverbs, the reduction of the number of participles from six to two, and the replacement of the table of correlatives with more Latinate words or phrases.
These reforms were overwhelmingly rejected, but some were picked up in subsequent reforms such as Ido and criticisms of the language. In the following decade Esperanto spread into western Europe, especially France. By there were already 27 magazines being published Auld A small international conference was held inleading to the first world congress in August in Boulogne-sur-MerFrance.
There were Esperanto speakers present from 20 nationalities. At this congress, Zamenhof officially resigned his leadership of the Esperanto movement, as he did not want personal prejudice against himself or anti-Semitism to hinder the progress of the language. He proposed a declaration on founding principles of the Esperanto movement, which the attendees of the congress endorsed.
The autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnetbetween Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language. However, two years later the League recommended that its member states include Esperanto in their educational curricula.
The French retaliated by banning all instruction in Esperanto in French schools and universities. Inthe Soviet Union started performing mass arrests, deportations, and killings of many Esperantists and their relatives for fear of an anti-nationalistic movement, but it was interrupted by the Nazi invasion.Zamenhof was a Jewish ophthalmologist from Bialystock which, at the time, formed part of the Russian Empire and is today situated in Poland.
After 10 years of development and driven by a desire to create harmony and understanding between people of different countries and cultures, he published the first grammar of Esperanto "one who hopes" in that language under the pseudonym of Dotoro Esperanto in As an artificial language, Esperanto has not grown ethnically, but rather, is a mixture of various linguistic elements and influences.
The Wonderful Horrible History of Esperanto, the Universal Language
Grammar, vocabulary and semantics are based on Indo-European languages, whereas phonetics are basically Slavic. Much of the vocabulary derives from Roman languages and, to a certain extent, from German. The alphabet does not include the letters w, q, x or y, except in specific names. Words in Esperanto are formed by stringing together prefixes, roots and suffixes, which allows new words to be created as the speaker goes along and needs them. The word order is also quite free. Some examples which show the influence of the basic language are as follows:.
At the beginning, Esperanto was quite successful. At the time, Esperanto enthusiasts kept in touch through correspondence, periodicals and magazines. Inthe American Radio Relay League adopted Esperanto as the official language of communication, but the use and influence was minimal. On the other hand, studies have shown, that, not unlike Latin, the learning of Esperanto considerably facilitates the acquisition of other languages.
Approximately 2 million people speak and correspond in Esperanto, but about 10 million have a basic or passive knowledge of the language. Learning Esperanto can be a good basis and starting point for learning second and third languages. Self study books are available, as are on-line courses.
The best source for further information is esperanto. This article gives some additional information about Esperanto and a number of free online resources for learning Esperanto. This download contains the special Esperanto diacritical characters in a number of common fonts. Bright Hub Education. Skip to content. History L. Grammar and Other Elements As an artificial language, Esperanto has not grown ethnically, but rather, is a mixture of various linguistic elements and influences. Learning Esperanto Learning Esperanto can be a good basis and starting point for learning second and third languages.
Skip to content History L.It's a language that is particularly useful for international communication. The language was initiated by Ludwig Lazar Zamenhof, who created the grammar on the basis of European languages with a minimal quantity of exceptions.Kundi sex story malayalam
The vocabulary is mostly based on Romance languages, although there are also words from Germanic and other languages. The new language, the first textbook of which appeared inattracted a community of speakers and began a normal process of language evolution within a community who used it in many environments and created a culture associated with the language.
Two decades later, the first children speaking in Esperanto with their parents were born, the first native speakers of the language. Thus, one can say that it is a language created for international communication, which later became creolized and is nowadays the language of a diaspora of Esperanto speakers. It was created on the basis of the vocabulary of Indo-European languages, but was intended to be easy to learn. For this reason, its grammar is agglutinative, a characteristic feature of Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages, and at a deeper level it is isolating, as in Mandarin Chinese and Vietnamese.
This means that its morphemes can be used as independent words. The main parts of speech nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs have consistent endings that always allow the recognition of all parts of speech. Its regularity makes it particularly easy to learn, and its streamlined capacity to create new words make it one of the most productive languages, with a potentially unlimited number of words, it is capable of expressing all new ideas or states.
The basic idea of Esperanto is about tolerance and respect for people of diverse nations and cultures. Communication is indeed the essential part of understanding each other, and if that communication happens through a neutral language, that can help the feeling that we 'meet' on equal grounds and help create respect for one another. Esperanto is most useful for communicating among people of diverse nations who do not have a common mother tongue. When you use Esperanto, you feel more equal from a linguistic standpoint than when, for example, you speak Spanish with a native Spanish speaker.
Thanks to the structure of Esperanto, it's usually much easier to master than other foreign languages. Esperanto evolves and lives just like other languages, and it can be used to express the most varied facets of human thought and emotion.
Everyone who learns Esperanto has a good chance of reaching a high level in it, and later, from a linguistic standpoint, of speaking it on a similar level as others, independently of linguistic background. The first primitive version of Esperanto, which Zamenhof named Lingwe Uniwersalais completed.
However, it differs considerably from modern Esperanto. Zamenhof with his wife's help publishes Unua Librothe book introducing modern Esperanto.
The first Esperanto magazine, La Esperantistois published in Nurenberg, and the first Esperanto club is founded. The Fundamento de Esperanto is published. It is possible to pass international Esperanto exams at three levels B1, B2, C1 and be evaluated in the 4 basic skills: reading and listening comprehension, written and oral communication, according to the Common European Framework of Reference.
Duolingo published a course in Esperanto for English speakers. Here is the Esperanto alphabet. Each letter always makes the same sound, and spelling is perfectly regular. Click the examples to hear how they're pronounced! All nouns in Esperanto end with -o.
In Esperanto, we show the direct object of a sentence by adding an -n. This lets us change the order of the parts of the sentence without changing the meaning. A direct object is that which is directly acted upon by the verb. All adjectives in Esperanto end with -a. Adjectives are used to describe nouns. Check this out! Adding mal- to the beginning of a word gives it the opposite meaning. Prefixes go in front of words to make new words. In Esperanto there are 10 different prefixes.Esperantoartificial language constructed in by L.
Zamenhofa Polish oculist, and intended for use as an international second language. Esperanto is relatively simple for Europeans to learn because its words are derived from roots commonly found in the European languages, particularly in the Romance languages. Orthography is phonetic, all words being spelled as pronounced. Grammar is simple and regular; there are characteristic word endings for nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Adjectives end in -a e. There is an extensive set of suffixes that can be added to word roots to allow various shades of meaning or newly derived forms; compound words are also used.
Esperanto is probably the most successful of the artificial international languages. The number of Esperanto speakers is estimated at more thanThe Universala Esperanto-Asocio founded has members in 83 countries, and there are 50 national Esperanto associations and 22 international professional associations that use Esperanto.
There is an annual World Esperanto Congress, and more than periodicals are published in the language.
More than 30, books have been published in Esperanto. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Esperanto language. See Article History.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Of these, Esperantoinvented by the Polish-Russian doctor L. Zamenhof in the 19th century, is the best known. Such languages are generally built up from parts of the vocabulary and grammatical apparatus of the better-known existing languages of the world.
The relationship between the written letter and…. It was intended by its originator to improve upon what he and others considered weak points in Esperanto.
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